Manuscript guidelines

Guidelines for writing manuscript

Manuscript Structure

Submitted manuscripts must be double spaced with sequential line numbers throughout the entire document. Pages should be numbered consecutively, including those containing acknowledgements, references, tables and figures.

Standard Papers- Standard papers should not normally be longer than 12 printed pages (a page of printed text, without figures or tables carries c. 800 words). The typescript should be arranged as follows, with each section starting on a separate page.

Title page- This should contain:

-- A concise and informative title (as short as possible). Do not include the authorities for taxonomic names in the title.

-- A list of authors' names with their surname and Institute/Organisation/Department Name ,full addresses of Institute/Organisation/Department. Author first names should be provided in full.

-- The name of the correspondence author, indicated using an asterisk, to whom decisions and, if appropriate, proofs will be sent. Email address, fax number and current address, if different from above, should be provided. A running headline of not more than 45 characters.

- A list of authors' names with their surname and Institute/Organisation/Department Name ,full addresses of Institute/Organisation/Department. Author first names should be provided in full.

- The name of the correspondence author, indicated using an asterisk, to whom decisions and, if appropriate, proofs will be sent. Email address, fax number and current address, if different from above, should be provided. A running headline of not more than 45 characters.

Summary- This is called the Abstract on the web submission site. The Summary must not exceed 350 words and should list the main results and conclusions, using simple, factual, numbered statements. The final point of your Summary must be headed 'Synthesis', and must emphasize the key findings of the work and its general significance, indicating clearly how this study has advanced ecological understanding. This policy is intended to maximize the impact of your paper, by making it of as wide interest as possible. This final point should therefore explain the importance of your paper in a way that is accessible to non-specialists. We emphasize that the Journal is more likely to accept manuscripts that address important and topical questions and hypotheses, and deliver generic rather than specific messages.

Key-words- A list in alphabetical order not exceeding ten words or short phrases, excluding words used in the title. One of the keywords must be the subject category that you select for your manuscript as part of the submission process (e.g. "Habitat fragmentation", "Dispersal", etc.).

Introduction- Explain the reasons for carrying out the work, outline the essential background and clearly state the nature of the hypothesis or hypotheses under consideration. Materials and methods. Provide sufficient details of the techniques employed to enable the work to be repeated. Do not describe or refer to commonplace statistical tests in this section but allude to them briefly in Results.

Results- State the results and draw attention in the text to important details shown in tables and figures.

Discussion- . Point out the significance of the results in relation to the reasons for doing the work, and place them in the context of other work.

Acknowledgements- If authors refer to themselves as recipients of assistance or funding, they should do so by their initials separated by points (e.g. J.B.T.). Do not acknowledge Editors by name.

Manuscript Format

Manuscripts for review must be a single editable (word processor) file with figures and tables added at the end of the text. This file will be converted to a PDF upon upload. Referees will be given access to the PDF version although the word processor file will remain accessible by the Managing Editor. Authors must therefore open each of the PDF files to check that the conversion has not introduced any errors.

Papers must reach certain standards before referees are asked to consider them: submissions that are not in the correct format, or which cannot be downloaded and printed reliably may therefore be returned to authors without review. Authors should retain their electronic manuscript file in case of any difficulties arising during online submission.

Pre-submission English-language editing. Authors for whom English is a second language may wish to consider having their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English.

Language- FOREX only publishes papers in English and spelling should conform to the Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. Journal style is not to use the serial comma before and/or/nor unless meaning would otherwise be obscured. Editors reserve the right to modify accepted manuscripts that do not conform to scientific, technical, stylistic or grammatical standards, and minor alterations of this nature may not be seen by authors until the proof stage.

Units, symbols and abbreviations- Authors are requested to use the International System of Units (SI) where possible for all measurements (see Quantities, Units and Symbols). Note that mathematical expressions should contain symbols not abbreviations. If the paper contains many symbols, it is recommended that they should be defined as early in the text as possible, or within a subsection of the Materials and methods section. Journal style for time units are: s, min, h, days, weeks, months, years.

Scientific names- Give the Latin names of each species in full, together with the authority for its name, at first mention in the main text. Subsequently, the genus name may be abbreviated, except at the beginning of a sentence. If there are many species, cite a Flora or checklist which may be consulted for authorities instead of listing them in the text. Do not give authorities for species cited from published references. Give priority to scientific names in the text (with colloquial names in parentheses, if desired).

Manufacturers' names- When a special piece of equipment has been used it should be described so that the reader can trace its specifications by contacting the manufacturer.

Mathematical material- Where ever possible, mathematical equations and symbols should be typed in-line by keyboard entry (using Symbol font for Greek characters, and superscript and subscript options where applicable). Do not embed equations or symbols using Equation Editor or Math Type, or equivalents, when simple in-line, keyboard entry is possible. Equation software should be used only for displayed, multi-line equations and equations and symbols that cannot be typed. Suffixes and operators such as d, log, ln and exp will be set in Roman type; matrices and vectors in bold type; other algebraic symbols in italics; and Greek symbols in upright type. Make sure that there is no confusion between similar characters like l ('ell') and 1 ('one'). If there are several equations they should be identified by an equation number (e.g. 'eqn 1' after the equation, and cited in the text as 'equation 1').

Number conventions- Text: Numbers from one to nine should be spelled out except when used with units; e.g. two eyes but 10 stomata; 3 years and 5 kg. Tables: Do not use an excessive number of digits when writing a decimal number to represent the mean of a set of measurements (the number of digits should reflect the precision of the measurement).

Figures (including photographs)- Please note that your paper will be published more quickly if instructions on figure content and figure format are followed carefully. Vector graphic figures will give the best possible online publication quality.

Tables and table captions- Tables should be constructed using 'tabs' (not spaces or software options). Units should appear in parentheses after the column or row name, e.g. Time (weeks). Tables should be cited in the text as, e.g., Table 1, Table 1a, 1b, Tables 1 and 2. The table caption label should not be abbreviated, and must be in bold and end with period (e.g. Table 1.). The table caption must appear above the table and must NOT end in a full stop.

Citations and References- Citation to work by four or more authors in the text should be abbreviated with the use of et al. (e.g. Able et al. 2003). Work with the same first author and date should be coded by letters, e.g. Amit et al. 2003 a,b. Citations should be listed in chronological order in the text and separated by a semi-colon, e.g. ytrewq et al. 2001; Able et al. 2005.

The references in the Reference list should be in alphabetical order with the journal name unabbreviated. The format for papers, entire books and chapters in books is as follows:

Amit, C. & Barber, J.L. (2003) A comparative study of the noise detection using iir filter. FOREX, 79, 199-221.

Phillips, N.A. (1997) Study on Rear view technology in car. PhD thesis, University of Delhi, India.Ramaswami, S.L. (1982) Food Webs. Chapman and Hall, London.

References should only be cited as 'in press' if the paper has been accepted for publication. Reference to unpublished works, works in preparation or works under review should cited as 'unpublished data', with the author's initials and surname given; such works should not be included in the Reference section. Any paper cited as 'in press' or under review elsewhere must be uploaded with the author's manuscript as a 'supplementary file not for review' so that it can be seen by the editors and, if necessary, made available to the referees.

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